S. H. Kim, "Analysis of 3D Foot Shape Features in Elderly with Hallux Valgus Using Multi-Dimensional Scaling Method", in Proc. of 1st Asian Workshop on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Tokyo, Japan, 2012, pp. 37-43, http://dx.doi.org/10.15221/A12.037.
Analysis of 3D Foot Shape Features in Elderly with Hallux Valgus Using Multi-Dimensional Scaling Method
Health Science University, Fuji-Kawaguchiko, Yamanashi, Japan
Foot shape data were collected from 489 Japanese elderly subjects aged 70 years or older to identify the features of normal and hallux valgus foot shapes. An INFOOT (I-Ware Laboratory Co., Ltd.), a three-dimensional scanner, was used to measure the foot shapes. The data points obtained by scanning the foot surface shapes were used to develop homologous shape models. The distance between two feet was defined as the sum of the distances between corresponding data points of the two homologous models. The distance matrix was then analyzed using the multi-dimensional scaling method (MDS) to identify the shape features. The analysis was conducted for eight groups (male/female x right/left x normal/hallux valgus) separately. A four-dimensional solution was obtained for each analysis, and each of the obtained axes was interpreted using calculated virtual shapes located at both ends of the axis. The following foot shape features were obtained: 1. foot size, 2. arch height, 3. medial/lateral shank shift, 4. calcaneus valgus/valus, 5. foot width, 6. ankle thickness, 7. dorsal arch height, 8. sphyrion height, and 9. foot abduction/adduction. A MDS analysis using normal feet and hallux valgus feet of the same foot length was also conducted. As a result, female hallux valgus group had more valus heels and lower arch height than female normal group, but some females with hallux valgus had normal arch height. No gender difference was found in the hallux valgus types, while females had lower arches than males. These results suggest that there are two types of hallux valgus in terms of foot shapes, and it is likely that they have similar deformity resulted from different mechanisms.
hallux valgus, multi-dimensional scaling, elderly, foot shape feature, arch height
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