J. A. Roebuck, "Advances in Anthropometric Accounting for Ear Digital Modeling", in Proc. of 4th Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Long Beach CA, USA, 2013, pp. 360-371, http://dx.doi.org/10.15221/13.360.
Advances in Anthropometric Accounting for Ear Digital Modeling
John A. ROEBUCK
Roebuck Research and Consulting, Santa Monica CA, USA
Anthropometry for general digital human modeling (DHM) may be enhanced and improved in clarity, accuracy of text and illustrations by adopting analogies of standard concepts for business accounting terminology and data. Analogs and differences between the two systems are described with examples. These procedures can aid organizing, publishing and applying data on anthropometric dimensions, especially for the complex shapes of human ears. Implications of these apparently simple practices have led to far-reaching benefits regarding text and illustrations in documentation. They can benefit anthropometric surveys, reports, data documents and software for computer aided design (CAD) using digital human models. Also, many additional advances beyond double entry book keeping concepts have been suggested by applying basic engineering graphics practices to deal with the unusual challenges of wide variability in shape and size of human ears. These include (a) extensive new titles and abbreviations for previously numbered points, (b) new titles, abbreviations and descriptions for some newly invented points that needed correction and formal recognition, (c) new concepts for formally recognizing reference lines, planes and curved surfaces as end conditions (herein called delimitations) together with their titles and abbreviations, (d) inclusion of callouts for points, lines, and surfaces in two orthogonal illustrations for dimensions and for delimitations and (e) ) new classifications and codes for path constraints for dimensions. The latter provide compact notation to distinguish between straight line and curved dimension, especially if they have the same origins and terminations. Also included are new concepts for reference view planes for ears. These include an Ear Primary View Plane (parallel to ear width and length) and a set of closely related, cross-section planes that are perpendicular to it. The latter aid depiction of true lengths of dimensions relative to ear figures that are commonly published and avoid certain difficulties of attempts to use standard anthropometric principal planes and axes for describing and illustrating measurements. Such advanced accounting procedures offer further benefits for creating multi-population databases, accurately retrieving data from databases and applying data to CAD analyses and digital modeling. The revelations of this document can fill a need to improve all ear anthropometric survey dimension selections, definitions, illustrations in many related fields to facilitate digital modeling, and many articles about plastic surgery, forensics, health and nutrition, and design requirements for ear-related devices, such as ear buds, earphones, ear muffs and other protective gear.
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