J. Webster et al., "Analysis of Morphological Variation of the Knee for Brace Development", in Proc. of 4th Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Long Beach CA, USA, 2013, pp. 335-339, http://dx.doi.org/10.15221/13.335.
Analysis of Morphological Variation of the Knee for Brace Development
James WEBSTER, Jeremy CORNOLO, Marine MENUT, Katerina KOLLIAS
Oxylane Research, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, Lille, France
Introduction. Over the past 20 years there has been a significant increase in the participation in recreational and organised sport. Associated with this is the desire to continue training through minor injuries as well as maximise performance with the help of external aids such as knee supports, reducing strain and increasing proprioception. Associated to these types of products are advertised user benefits. However, for these benefits to be upheld it is important that the support applies the correct amount of compression in the appropriate area. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate European knee joint morphology, create separate size divisions and evaluate the morphological variation of the knee within each size through the use of 3D models.
Method. 1800 scans of European legs (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Germany) were captured using an Artec white light scanner. Principal component analysis was used to identify which of the standard measures used within knee support development should be used to categorise the population. The scans were then analysed through cluster analysis to identify how many sizes were required and how to separate the sizes to obtain 80%+ coverage of the population. Finally, all scans within each size category were used to calculate an average leg, with the centred circumferential standard deviation per 1 mm to be mapped to create a 3D model of the average leg, average +2SD and average -2SD.
Results. The PCA results identified that circumferential measure can be used to explain 93% of the variation within the population, with the measure 8cm above knee joint centre having the highest correlation with this factor (0.98). The cluster analysis identified 3 size categories within the data providing 81% coverage of the European population. An average leg was created for each size, with the standard deviation of each centred circumference calculated. To maximise coverage 2 standard deviations were used to calculate the variation in leg morphology and the location of greatest variation. As the size category was calculated on the +8cm measure the variation in upper leg measures (+8 and +12cm) was significantly lower than the knee and lower leg (-8cm) measures, 13%, 10%, 14% and 15% respectively.
Conclusion. The results identify that there is significantly greater variation in calf circumference compared to other anatomical references for knee products. The results identify that through the development of a new sizing system over 80% coverage could be achieved whilst minimising material elongation to less than 15% to ensure this is obtained.
© Hometrica Consulting - Dr. Nicola D'Apuzzo, Switzerland, www.hometrica.ch.
Reproduction of the proceedings or any parts thereof (excluding short quotations for the use in the preparation of reviews and technical and scientific papers) may be made only after obtaining the specific approval of the publisher. The papers appearing in the proceedings reflect the author's opinions. Their inclusion in these publications does not necessary constitute endorsement by the editor or by the publisher. Authors retain all rights to individual papers.