J. Lee et al., "Three-Dimensional Analysis of Facial Asymmetry of Healthy Hispanic Children", in Proc. of 3rd Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 2012, pp. 133-138, http://dx.doi.org/10.15221/12.133.
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Facial Asymmetry of Healthy Hispanic Caucasian Children
Juhun LEE 1,2, Brian KU 1, Adriana C. DA SILVEIRA 1,3, Mia K. MARKEY 1,2
1 The University of Texas at Austin, Austin (TX), USA;
2 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (TX), USA;
3 Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin (TX), USA
The objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of facial asymmetry of healthy Hispanic Caucasian children residing in Central Texas, USA. 3D facial surface images of healthy Hispanic Caucasian participants (41 boys, 39 girls) currently residing in Central Texas, USA (aged 7 and 12 years) were obtained using a 3dMDcranial system (3dMD, Atlanta, GA) under an approved IRB protocol. Facial features of each hemiface (left and right) were quantified using 27 anthropometric distances between 22 facial landmarks computed from the 3D facial surface images. Two types of distances were included: 1) Euclidean (2 orbital, 3 nasal, 8 oral, and 6 profile) and 2) Geodesic (1 orbital, 1 nasal, 6 profile) distances. The ratio of each facial feature of the left hemiface to the corresponding facial feature of the right hemiface was calculated. The one-sample Student's t test with a Bonferroni correction was employed to assess the extent of facial asymmetry. Overall, for both genders, the facial features from the right side are larger than those from the left side. It was found that healthy Hispanic Caucasian children have fairly symmetric faces. However, the data suggest that there is a statistically significant asymmetry of facial features for healthy Hispanic Caucasian children. For example, the ratio of the nostril (sbal - sn) was asymmetric for healthy Hispanic Caucasian boys and the ratio between the Geodesic distances from tragion to nasion (t - n) was asymmetric for both genders. The result of this study is consistent with previous studies of other racial/ethnic groups. This information will serve as reference data for surgeons who conduct reconstructive surgery for children with congenital deformities of their faces.
reconstruction surgery, 3D stereophotogrammetry, facial asymmetry, facial features
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