R. C. Roth et al., "Device and Method for Precise Repositioning of Subjects for 3D Imaging of Head, Face, and Neck", in Proc. of 3rd Int. Conf. on 3D Body Scanning Technologies, Lugano, Switzerland, 2012, pp. 81-90, http://dx.doi.org/10.15221/12.081.
Device and Method for Precise Repositioning of Subjects for 3D Imaging of Head, Face, and Neck
Richard C. ROTH, Matthew DEPAUW, Andrew HEPNER
Advanced Imaging and Measurement Laboratory, Amway Corporation, Ada (MI), USA
Three dimensional imaging has been made possible through the development of laser and white light interference fringe technology. These technologies have allowed subjects to directly view improvements in facial contours due to cosmetic product applications and dermatologic procedures. Laser based scanning has the drawback of the need for closed eyes; white light interference fringe scanning requires very low light backgrounds and employs short bursts of relatively bright light. Both technologies require subjects to remain extremely still. Differential comparison of 3D images, as image overlays, not only exacerbate the need for still subjects, but also the need for precise alignment of the subjects in order to observe small structural and contour changes to the head, face and neck regions. These changes are observed as a result of efficacious cosmetic product applications and invasive dermatological cosmetic procedures for anti-aging, sagging, and lifting interventions, and in weight loss.
Subject orientation without encumbrances of the face or neck, and without distortion of facial features, is a special concern with 3D imaging. Stillness of the subject is a concern, but co-location of the subject for subsequent imaging sessions is paramount for high quality 3D image overlay. The positioning devices presented provide for a novel set of alignment processes including, gross subject alignment, fine subject alignment, and direction-of-gaze. Gross alignment is accomplished through defined general positioning of body and head, fine positioning includes subject specific head alignment, and critically, the subject direction-of-gaze during head alignment. Parameters of the positioning device are recorded during an initial "subject fitting" and define a subject-specific orientation for subsequent imaging sessions.
The positioning device provides unencumbered imaging of the subject facial regions and a return to the same orientation according to preset subject specific fitting parameters. Contact with head touch points are maintained by the subject and allow undistorted full facial imaging and analysis of the face, jaw, neck regions. The touch points are defined by the height above the seated position, distance from vertical orientation, occipital head location, and a top frontal position which combines the subjects head curvature and size. These defined parameters are combined with a specific direction-of-gaze. Through the positioning device and alignment process the four axes of co-location: depth, tilt, rotation, and yaw, are addressed. Re-alignment parameters are maintained within 0.1 to 0.2 mm for all reticulated adjustments.
In this presentation, a set of integrated positioning devices is described which, 1) align the subject body and head, 2) co-locate the head and neck for repeatable analysis, and 3) maintain the direction-of-gaze of the subject. Comparisons are observed as measured differences in horizontal and vertical cross-sections, color-coded 3D contour maps, and as regional distance and volume changes. Three dimensional images illustrating overlay, cross-sectional analysis, contour, and volume changes from applications and procedures are presented.
3D, parallax, reposition, face
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